Under pressure to be good corporate citizens, politically endorsed firms in emerging markets often choose philanthropy over adopting greener practices.
In developed economies, consumers have been saying it loud and clear: corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a must, not a nice-to-have. As far back as 2010, more than 88% of consumers thought firms should improve society and the environment. The trend has hardly abated. A 2018 survey conducted in the UK and the US revealed that the overwhelming majority of consumers now count on brands to help them be more environment-friendly in their own daily lives.
Meanwhile, in emerging markets, governments often play a larger role than consumers in pushing companies to be good corporate citizens. In China for instance, the state is using CSR as a
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